Bogomolets National Medical University

Department of Medical and General Chemistry

History of department

Teaching of general chemistry on the medical faculty of Kiev university of St. Vladimir was begun in 1841, from the first-year of its creation, on the department of chemistry which served all of faculties and was disposed in the main blocks of university in a street Vladimirskaya, 60. A separate department of general chemistry on a medical faculty in the first decades of its existence did not exist. The first head of the department of chemistry in 1841 – 1859 was a professor Ignatius Matthew Fonberg (1801 – 1891), who was sent to the university from Vilenskaya medical academy after its rearranging. He read lectures to the first students of medical faculty on general and organic chemistry and organized the obligatory laboratory studies for them. I.M. Fonberg organized the first chemical laboratory, where he made experimental researches in industry of inorganic and analytical chemistry (an analysis of minerals, soils, research of poisons, study of composition of water from wells and ponds, examining a quality of products of different chemical factories). He is an author of three-volume “Course of technical chemistry”

When I.M. Fonberg had retired, the course of inorganic and organic chemistry for the students of medical faculty read Dmitry Mikolaevich Abashev a graduating student of Petersburg university, adjunct of Kiev university, from 1869 a professor who headed the department in 1859 – 1862. He studied mutual dissolution of liquids and thermo chemistry of non-aqueous solutions for the first time. He has found out a limit of mindedness of mutual solubility of liquids and existence of critical temperature of dissolution.

In 1860 – 1868 he read at the department of chemistry the special courses on questions of analytical chemistry and methods of titrate, an anatomist and world-wide professor Vladimir Alexander Bets, which in an introductory lecture for students – physicians marked the necessity of deep study of chemistry, physics, biology and other natural disciplines, with the purpose of the best mastering of anatomy.

In 1863 at the medical faculty of Kiev university the department of medical chemistry on which in different years the courses were read from inorganic, general, organic and physical chemistry was created.

From 1862 to 1869 a graduating student of Petersburg university, a professor Ivan Artamonovich Tyutchev (1834 – 1893) headed the department of chemistry, – a native chemist and crystallographer, a specialist on organic chemistry: He studied glycols, synthesized difficult alcohols. He made many efforts for expansion of scientific researches. On his initiative in 1869 the construction of separate blocks was begun for a chemical laboratory which by then became one of the best in Russia. From 1869 he worked mainly in industry of inorganic chemistry and mineralogy. He is an author of textbook of “The main principles of mineral chemistry”. To his experimental researches I.A. Tyutchev widely attracted the capable young scientists, one of whom was Mickola Andriyovich Bunge, later known as a specialist in industry of chemical technology, from 1871 a professor of the university, participated actively in organization of Kiev polytechnic institute, he was one of the founders of physics – chemical society in Kyiv. M.A. Bunge issued a work “Course of chemical technology”, developed the new effective methods of the Dnieper water treatment, perfected the method of gas analysis, made a large contribution in development of domestic sugar industry, and supported the study of natural riches of Ukraine and development of technical knowledge.

On proposal of I.A. Tyutchev in 1865 on the department was entitled a position of associate professor of organic chemistry, on which Peter Petrovich Alekseev was invited, later a professor who during 25 years read the course of organic chemistry in the university. He headed the department from 1869 to 1891. P. P. Alekseev wrote a number of textbooks and the training aids, including a fundamental guidance on the organic chemistry, in which over 2000 organic compounds are described. The basic works are devoted to chemistry of azo- compounds for which he grounded formulas (azo-, hydrazo-, diazo-compounds). He has developed the method of receipt of azobenzene by renewing the nitrobenzene. P.P. Alekseev was a founder of Kiev society of natural scientists, beginning from 1875; he annually published “Review of Russian chemical literature”. His students – Y.M. Barzilovskiy – a professor, a future head of the department of inorganic chemistry and M.M. Kannder – a teacher of Kiev University, read the course of theoretical chemistry.

In 1869 – 1891 a course of inorganic (general) chemistry to the students of physics – mathematical and chemical faculties read a talented researcher, a founder of Kiev chemical school, the second professor of department Feodor Minovich Garnich – Garnickiy.

In 1891 was created the inorganic department of chemical laboratory of Kiev university, which soon became the base of the department of inorganic chemistry. This department from 1894 to 1926 was headed by a former student of P.P Alekseeva – a professor Y.M. Barzilovskiy, who read lectures at the medical faculty. He made a research in industry of organic chemistry (connections of nitrogen), studied composition of different waters, and developed the methods of their analysis. In 1888 a master’s degree of chemistry, a private associate professor of judicial chemistry, pharmacy and pharmacology, an ordinate professor (1912) Timothy Ivanovich Lunachevskiy – Petrunyak developed some methods of the Dniester river water treatment.

In 1892 the division of organic chemistry was rearranged in an independent department. On this department the pupil of the known Kazan’ school of organic chemistry professor Sergey Nikolayevich Reformatskiy (1860 – 1934) was invited, from 1928 – a member correspondent of Science Academy of the USSR. He headed the department of organic chemistry from 1892 to 1934 and later after dividing in 1920 a medical faculty from structure of Kiev university and formation of Kiev medical institute (KMI), during the number of years continued to read to the students of medical institute the lecture on organic chemistry. He was the chairman of Kiev physical and chemical society in 1910 – 1916 but 1920 – 1933 participated actively in-process of the institute’s physical and chemical commission. His basic works are devoted to the synthesis of menthol organic compounds. The research of C.M. Reformatskiy in industry of synthesis beta – acids won the world recognition. At present “the reaction of Reformatskiy” is used for the study of structure and synthesis of difficult natural compounds: vitamins, hormones, terpenes, and others like that. He is an author of some training aids and a known textbook on the organic chemistry “Primary course of organic chemistry” (1893), which was studied by a lot of generations of students-physicians. The former students of S.M. Reformatskiy were the prominent scientists, chemists, actual members of SA of the USSR – V.P. Yavorskiy and I.K. Mazurkevich, and also well known physics chemists – V.O. Shishkovskiy and Y.I. Mikhaylenko.

In 1899 – 1910, the course of physical chemistry in Kiev university was read by a graduating student of Moscow university world – known Ukrainian physics chemist, a professor of Kiev polytechnic institute, Vladimir Alexandrovich Plotnikov (1873 – 1947), afterwards an academician of SA of UKRAINE (1920). In 1921-1923, he was the head of the department of general chemistry in the university holding two jobs and read lectures on inorganic chemistry to the students of medical faculty. His school from electrochemistry of water solutions is known in the whole world; in fact the Mendeleev’s chemical theory of solutions was experimentally confirmed. His basic scientific works are about the inorganic chemistry, chemistry of complex compounds of aluminum and its salts.

In 1924 – 1929 the department of general chemistry was headed by an associate professor Nadezhda Vladimirivna Scherbina. As structural subdivision, the department of general chemistry was created in Kiev medical institute ten years later after its opening. As the first head of the department from 1930 to 1934 was a professor Dmitry Kostantinovich Goralevich.

From 1934 to 1938 a professor of Kiev university, Konstantin Paulovich Volkov (1880 – 1938), a known teacher and methodist who read to the students-physicians a course of inorganic and physical chemistry, headed the department of general chemistry of Kiev medical institute holding two jobs. After his premature death, a professor Anatoliy Petrovich Sementsov headed the department of inorganic chemistry (general chemistry) from 1938 to 1941. In 1938 the independent department of organic chemistry, the head of which was an associate professor Semen Korniyovich Mozhar, who read the course of organic chemistry, was created in KMI. The department lasted till 1955 and from this time was rearranged in the complex of department of biological chemistry. In these years the course of physical and colloid chemistry was read on the department of general chemistry, afterwards he was sent to the department of biochemistry, and in 1972 finally sent to the department of general chemistry.

From 1941 till 1944, in the period of evacuation of institute to Chelyabinsk city a professor Anna Michaelivna Hukhrikova (1893 – 1944) headed the department of general chemistry. During these years a scientific- experimental work of department was directed on the necessities of practical medicine. More thoroughly about it is written in the memoirs of an associate professor of department of general chemistry of Kiev medical college Nonna Antonivna Bisikalova, who during that time off war was an evacuee to Chelyabinsk city. Bisikalova’s memoirs and the photo, on which she is shown with a group of students-physicians in Chelyabinsk city, are presented in the additional part.

During the post-war years, after a premature death of G.M. Khukhrika, on position of the head of department of general chemistry was elected an employee and a former student of world-wide known scientist, academician of the Academy of Science of the USSR l.V. Pisarzhevskogo, Boris Jakovich Dayn (1890 – 1973), who headed the department from 1944 till 1953. B.Y. Dayn worked in a medical college holding two jobs, as his basic work was Institute of physical chemistry of AS of UKRAINE, (IPhCh of AS UKRAINE) where he headed the department of photochemistry. Developing the ideas of the teacher, academician L.V. Pisarzhevskiy, about the role of electronic mechanisms in oxidation – restoration systems, he created new scientific direction – photochemistry of the condensed systems, pawned bases of modern presentation in relation to the photo transmission of electrons in solutions, studied the mechanisms of reactions which take place at the vital functions of plants. B.Y. Dayn was a wonderful lecturer; he was the first who began to profile the course of general chemistry to the students-physicians, explaining the role of different inorganic compounds as the medications and mechanism of some processes which took place in an organism as for the modern chemistry. It played an important role in the subsequent construction of course of general chemistry in the medical college. An advanced study of employees of the department B.Y. Dayn organized on the base of the department of photochemistry of IPhCh Academy of Science of UKRAINE, in particular the students assistants N.A. Bisikalova and O.P. Kostryukova entered the postgraduate studies of Institute of physical chemistry of Academy of Science of UKRAINE and after making the dissertations they came back to the department of general chemistry, and afterwards they came to the department of biological chemistry of KMI. In all, B.Y. Dayn tutored two doctors and 15 candidates of science.

In 1953 – 1971, the department was headed by a professor Dmitry Nickolaevich Strazhesko, who also worked in the KMI holding two jobs, combining this work with the advanced study in IFKH AS of UKRAINE, where he was the head of the department of ionic exchange and adsorption. Under his guidance were developed the theoretical bases of the use of adsorbents of different nature (activated coal, silica gels, ion exchange of resins) which were applied for cleaning of row of antibiotics (penicillin, streptomycin, polymyxin, cycluron). At the same time the researches were conducted for application of complex connections in analytical chemistry and the new methods of analysis of medicinal preparations were developed. Under his guidance the collective of department made a considerable work with the purpose of increase scientific – methodical level of courses of general, analytical, physical and colloid chemistry, which was read on the department. First of all from the course of lecture were excluded the questions that were unimportant for medicine specialists training and some new sections were included which mattered very much for understanding of the modern stage of development of both chemical and biological science. For example, It was included in the program of course, the questions of teaching of such types of chemical compounds, as donor-type-acceptor-type and hydrogen connections without regarding which it is impossible to understand the second structure of albumens; large attention was paid to the theory of co-coordinating connections and their application; picture of mechanism of oxidation restoration processes and others like that. Examining chemical properties of separate matters the brief information was provided about their value for physiology, their pharmacological activity, about various applications of inorganic preparations in medical practice and others like that. In the brief specialized course of physical and colloid chemistry the basic attention was paid to more deep study of the superficial phenomena, ion – exchange processes, physical and chemical properties of biopolymers and their solutions and others like that. Experience of teaching the chemical disciplines, accumulated by the collective of the department, was partly generalized in textbooks and train aids: in textbooks and manuals: “Course of lectures of general chemistry” (1957) and “Practical studies for physical and colloid chemistry” (1958) by D.M. Strazhesko, “Quantitative analysis” for the students of chemical-pharmaceutical faculty” by M.B. Schigolya, “Manual for practical studies of quantitative analysis” by S.M. Berinboyma, L.P. Boykova and N.B. Burchinskaya. He was a brilliant lecturer. He has in all tutored 5 doctors and 15 candidates of chemical sciences, five from whom worked at the department of general chemistry of KMI. Docents V.B. Emel’yanov and V.I. Galinska are working at this department at present.

From 1971 till 1988, a professor V.A. Lunenok-Burmakina headed the department of general chemistry; she was a student of professor D.M. Strazheska and academician O.I. Brodskiy, a well known specialist on chemistry of inorganic peroxide compound structures, reactionary ability and mechanism of their reactions. She created at the department a base for implementation of research work in which all of employees of department took part. Assistant G.G. Lezina received a candidate’s dissertation. V.A. Lunenok-Burmakina is an author of 130 scientific, 5 methodological and psychological educational studies, 9 inventions on new disinfectant facilities and methods of disinfection, 10 methodical manuals for the students of medical institute.

In 1970, a change took place in chemistry teaching in the system of medical education, the requirement of which was to provide for physicians a theoretical base for understanding the new scientific disciplines: molecular biology, molecular genetics, molecular pathology, which gave a possibility to study physiology processes in the organism of man at molecular level. The new program was ratified in chemistry, and the department as being the main in Ukraine, provided co-coordinating work. The employees of department made and gave out a package of educational – methodical manuals on the new program: text of lectures of “Chemical linkage and molecules structure” (V.A. Lunenok-Burmakina), “Tasks and drills for general and analytical chemistry”, “Titrimentic analysis” (collective of authors), etc. The department was the pioneer of introduction of the International system of units of SI in the on-line tutorials for students, which are used presently by all doctors of the Ukraine. V.A. Lunenok-Burmakina tutored 6 candidates of sciences, two of whom worked as the teachers in the KMI; С.H.S., A.G. Miroshnichenko works at the department at present, actively using the new disinfectant facilities on the basis of suroxide of hydrogen in practice of health care. Collective of department along with the department of pharmacology of KMI (headed by the department professor I.S. Chekman) took part in the study of reactions of compound creation of bimetals with cardio active preparations and amino acid with the purpose of exposure of molecular mechanism of action of medications and selection of their effective compositions.

During these years the department was several times renamed and changed the place of location. In 1982 there was another substantial alteration of curriculum which deepened profiling of course of chemistry and was called “Inorganic and biophysical chemistry”; the department had the same name from 1983 till 1988 In 1988 the department was again renamed as the department of “General chemistry”, it has this name now.

As the base of department till 1941 and from 1944 till 1964 was an apartment in a block in the street of Chkalov, 65, but the chemistry lectures the students listened in the apartment of former anatomic theater on the street of Lenin, 37 (presently Bogdan Khmel’nickiy Street, where an apartment of Museum of medicine is located). In 1964 the department moved to the morphological blocks of KMI, it was there till 1978, whereupon was again moved, this time to Pushkin Street, 22. A location of department of chemistry here was temporal, and in 1985 it moved in just built physical and chemical blocks in Victory Ave., 34, where it is located to this day.

From 1988 till 1991, the department was headed by professor V.M. Polyakov, a former student of academician V.Ya. Minkin. He is an author the over 150 advanced and scientifically methodical studies and 19 inventions. Under his guidance the processes of compound creation of cobalt with nitrogen biolysis were studied from with a purpose of receipt of connections with bactericidal properties, bactericidal materials (bandages, gauzes, gaskets) which found application in medical practice.

Since 1991 this department was headed by a professor, academician of AS, Higher school V.O. Kalibabchuk, a former student of academician V.V. Skopenko and professor A.M. Golub. Professor Kalibabchuk V.O. is a prominent scientist in industry of inorganic and physical chemistry. She successfully uses the scientific developments for explanation of processes which take a place in the medico-biological systems. She was the first who developed theoretical and practical bases of physical chemistry of diazonaphtholes as perspective photosensitive materials for no silver layers; she developed a new approach for the study of properties of the chemically modified silica with the purpose of creation of new chemical sensing probes; she got important results in the synthesis of polynuclear entity co-coordinating connections of bio-metals with bioligands and on their basis the creation of modern materials and medications.

Kalibabchuk V.O. is an author of over 300 scientific works, among which there are more than 30 monographs, textbooks and train aids. She is the Sorosivskiy professor (1996). She tutored 8 candidates of sciences.

Professor Kalibabchuk V.O. is a known specialist in industry of medical education. At the department which she heads, a lot of scientific methodical work is made, for instance the first Ukrainian-language textbook „Basis of analytical chemistry” was issued (electronic version); a new on-line tutorials were developed on discipline “Inorganic, physical and colloid chemistry” for specialties: medical business, medical prophylactic course , pediatrics, medico psychology; the modern computer-integrated program is created on discipline „Chemistry” for medical lyceums, which won the first prize in the competition among the business programs.

The collective of department actively works on creation of Ukrainian-language methodical manuals and textbooks, adapting them to the new on-line tutorials on courses “Inorganic, physical and colloid chemistry” for domestic and foreign students And course of all of faculties, and also on courses of “Inorganic chemistry”, “Analytical chemistry” and “Physical and colloid chemistry” for the students of pharmaceutical faculty of 1st, 2nd and 3rd courses accordingly, in which a duplication of school material was fully removed. The following professors as experimental teachers of senior generation took part in this work: an associate professors: V.B. Emel’yanov, V.I. Galinska, S.M. Gozhdzinskiy, V.A Samarskiy, item teachers: L.I. Grischenko and T.O. Ovsyannikova, assistants A.G. Miroshnichenko and V.Zh. Ratushna, as well as the teachers from new generation: doc. G.M. Zayceva, item teacher T.D. Reva, assistants O.O. Kostirko, L.V. Filippova, V.L. Slipchuk, T.A. Lisenko, O.P. Efetova, O.M. Chkhalo. The new forms of studies were actively used in teaching by Professor V.O. Kalibabchuk, doctors G.M. Zayceva, V.I. Galinska, assistants O.O. Kostirko, V.L. Slipchuk and V.A. Khalaf during current educational year make study in the group of the English-language students in English language, for which all of necessary methodical materials are made and are distributed in full (V. Kalibabchuk, G. Zaitseva, V. V. Galinska. Study of the lecture course of “Bioinorganic, physical and colloid chemistry. Kyiv, 2004. 76 p., G. Zaitseva, V. Kalibabchuk, V. Galinska, O. Kostyrko, V. Slipchuk, N. Sharkina, V. Khalaf. Bioinorganic, physical and colloid chemistry. Workbook. Kyiv, 2004. 56 p., G. Zaitseva, V. Kalibabchuk, N. Sharkina, V. Slipchuk, V. Khalaf. Bioinorganic, physical and colloid chemistry. Practical of lessons. Part 1. Kyiv, 2004. 79 p., V. Kalibabchuk, V. Galinska, G. Zaitseva, O. Kostyrko, N. Sharkina. Bioinorganic, physical and colloid chemistry. Practical of lessons. Part II. Kyiv, 2004. 35 p.)

Kalibabchuk V.O. makes a large scientific organizational work on principles of member of commission on chemistry of Scientific methodical council on questions of formation of Department of education and science of Ukraine, member of Presidium of Ukrainian chemical society, member of Presidium of section, “Chemistry and chemical technology” at Academy of Science of Ukraine, she is a member of the specialized scientists council D 26.001.03 of Kiev National university in the name of Taras Shevchenko and D 26.003.07 of the National medical university in the name of O.O. Bogomolets, she was the member of expert council of Academy of Ukraine.

Publications: Inorganic chemistry. Physical chemistry. General chemistry, Theoretical and experimental chemistry, Ukrainian chemical magazine; News of Institutes, Chemistry and chemical technology; Co-coordinating chemistry; I. Mol. Spectra; . Structural chemistry; Applied chemistry; Lectures of Science Academy of Ukraine, Functional Materials; I. Chem. Soc. Dalton Transactions; Actual problems of medicine and biology.

A co-author of the Russian-Ukrainian-English base dictionary for the student-physicians (Kyiv, Health, 2001-264s.) Collective of authors of NMU.

The department of general chemistry of NMU co-operates with many scientific establishments of Ukraine and abroad: with Kiev National university in the name of Taras Shevchenko, with Institute of physical chemistry of NANU in the name of L.V. Pisarzhevskogo (IFKH NANU), with Institute of per sorption and problems of endoecology (ISPE NANU), with Institute of inorganic and general chemistry (INZKHU), with Institute of chemistry of surface of NANU (IKHP NANU), with the Wroclaw university, Poland, with University of Campinas, Brazil.

Traditionally at the department works a student scientific chemical group the members of which actively come forward with lectures at the students scientific conferences of the university and at particular branch conferences of young scientists of republic, where they win the prizes. In 2004 the advanced study of students Skibyuk A.V. and Moskalyuk O.V. on the study of some indexes of drinking-water from the artesian mining holes of Kyiv is acknowledged as the best in a competition, carried out by Presidium of AMN of Ukraine and Association of medical institutes of Ukraine (a leader of group is an assistant A.G. Miroshnichenko).

Today at the department of medical and general chemistry of NMU, work the following persons: a head of the department, academician of AMS, Higher school of Ukraine, doctor of chemical sciences, professor V.O. Kalibabchuk, 9 associate professors (candidates of chemical sciences V.B. Emel’yanov, V.I. Galinska, S.M. Gozhdzinskiy, V.A Samarskiy, G.M. Zayceva, O.O. Kostirko, T.D. Reva, L.V. Filippova, O.B. Nichiporuk), 3 senior teachers (C. H. S. L.I. Grischenko, C. H. S. T.O. Ovsyannikova, V.L. Slipchuk), 7 assistants (C. H. S. A.G. Miroshnichenko, V.Zh. Ratushna, I.A. Odarich, T.V. Kartashova, T.A. Lisenko, I.G. Telegeev, O.M. Chkhalo).