Bogomolets National Medical University
HONOR, MERCY, GLORY

Department of epidemiology

Heads of the Department of Epidemiology

Marko Petrovych Neshchadymenko (1869-1942 р.р.) – famous scientist and microbiologist-epidemiologist, Professor, Corresponding Member of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in the Department of Microbiology (from 1929).

He was born on May 15, 1869 in the village Serdechivtsi, Cherkasy region in the family of farmer. M.P. Neshchadymenko being a student was the most interested in microbiology.

After receiving graduation certificate from the Faculty of Medicine (1896), he went to work in the newly established Kyiv Bacteriological Institute. Talented scientist who was proficient in foreign languages was sent to enhance knowledge abroad (1902-1908 years). In the best bacteriological institutes and laboratories in Europe he met with methods of serums and vaccines manufacture. In 1910 M.P. Neshchadymenko published a monograph on the pathogenesis of infectious diseases on the basis of studying the action of diphtheria toxin on the body. This monograph he submitted as dissertation work and on February 9, 1910 he brilliantly defended it at St. Volodymyr University.

M.P. Neshchadymenko organized work of Epidemiological department of the Institute and its practical epidemiological field work in the direction of anti-typhoid, scarlet fever, scleroma and other infections while working as researcher, director and deputy director of Kyiv Bacteriological Institute.

In Kyiv Bacteriological Institute headed by M.P. Neshchadymenko, he created a special laboratory for production of vaccines against tuberculosis and introduced this vaccine in the practice of combatting tuberculosis in Ukraine.

In 1932 M.P. Neshchadymenko on the basis of readership course organized and headed the Department of Epidemiology of Kyiv Medical Institute. His extensive experience in dealing with epidemics of typhus, cholera, smallpox and other infectious diseases contributed to this. Simultaneously M.P. Neshchadymenko headed the Department of Microbiology of Kyiv Medical Institute. At first the Department of Epidemiology did not have its base and so on epidemiology studies were conducted in the classrooms of the Department of Microbiology. M.P. Neshchadymenko completed staff of the Department of Epidemiology and organized learning process of the discipline. It should be noted that M.P. Neshchadymenko in 1921-1923 at the Department of Microbiology taught the course “Special epidemiology” (2 hours per week during 13 and 14 terms). Lectures of Professor M.P. Neshchadymenko which he read in Ukrainian, enjoyed great popularity.

M.P. Neshchadymenko studied the pathogenesis and immunology of diphtheria, took steps to implement in practice antitoxin against diphtheria. He was one of the first who investigated the action of diphtheria toxin on the body. M.P. Neschadymenko experimentally proved the possibility of simultaneous immunization with two or more vaccines, including vaccine against smallpox and diphtheria toxoid, thereby initiated the creation of associated vaccines; studied immunizing power of dysentery vaccine.

M.P. Neshchadymenko is the author of three monographs that focus on meningococcal disease, diphtheria and scarlet fever. He published about 50 scientific papers.

 

Serhiy Nykyforovych Ruchkovsky (1888-1965 р.р.) – famous scientist-epidemiologist, Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, Professor.

He was born on January 8, 1888 in Tarashcha, Kyiv region in a family supervisor of Tarashcha hospital. S.N. Ruchkovskyy studied in St. Volodymyr University at Medical Faculty together with writer M.A Bulgakov. He graduated in 1914 and obtained a diploma with honors.

In 1918-1920 he worked on the position of epidemiologist in Kyiv Gubernial Country Council and headed Kyiv sanitary and bacteriological laboratory.

In 1926 he was elected to the position of senior assistant of epidemiological department of Kharkiv Bacteriological Institute and also worked as assistant at the Department of Epidemiology in Kharkiv Medical Institute.

In 1929 S.N. Ruchkovsky was elected on the position of the head of the Department of Epidemiology of Kyiv Bacteriological Institute. Since 1931 he worked as Assistant professor, and since 1935 – Professor of the Department of Epidemiology in Kyiv Institute of Doctors’ Postgraduate Education and subsequently he headed this Department.

In 1939 S.N. Ruchkovsky was elected as a head of the Department of Epidemiology of Kyiv Medical Institute, where he worked until 1948. The Department staff created necessary conditions for conducting training and their subject was completely filled with epidemiological sense. They developed new course schedule of lectures and workshops, which were widely used on laboratory detection of infectious diseases and pathogen carriers, carrying out preventive measures in the foci of infectious diseases and vaccination of the population.

Scientific researches of the Department have been focused on study of epidemiology of enteric infections (dysentery, salmonellosis) and respiratory infections (scarlet fever), conducted research on the effectiveness of dysenteric vaccine. Employees studied characteristics of the source of dysentery agent (patients and carriers), and the role of various factors in the transmission of this infection in the mechanism of its transmission; analyzed the causes of water epidemics of typhoid fever and the role of food in spreading of salmonella. They also studied the epidemiology and prevention of scarlet fever (role of common carriage of Streptococcus scarlet fever, age structure of morbidity).

S.N. Ruchkovsky established natural focality of “Volyn fever”, which later was named as paroxysmal rickettsiosis. In 1945 S.N. Ruchkovsky for the first showed that immunological agent of paroxysmal ricketsiosis differs from other rickettsiae and named it Rickettsia guintanae. Natural focality of the disease occurs in some forest areas in western Ukraine.

Department of Epidemiology, headed by Professor S.N. Ruchkovsky in the postwar period when infectious diseases mainly manifested in the form of outbreaks and epidemics, carried out extensive work on spread of epidemiological knowledge among the population. At that time 6 popular scientific brochures were published.

Professor S.N. Ruchkovsky published about 80 scientific publications, including 4 monographs. In 1946 he was elected a Corresponding member of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR.

 

Lev Vasyliovych Hromashevsky (1887-1980 р.р.) –an outstanding epidemiologist, existing member of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, Honored Worker of Science of the USSR, Hero of Socialist Labor, Professor.

He was born October 14, 1887 in Mykolayiv in the family of naval officer. In 1904 he entered the Medical Faculty of Novorossiysk (Odesa) Medical University. Being a student he participated in the control of plague epidemic in Manchuria within expedition led by D.K. Zabolotny. In 1912 L.V. Hromashevsky passed examinations at Medical Faculty and received the title of doctor with honors.

After graduating from Medical Faculty he worked on the position of epidemiologist in Saratov, participated in anti-plague commission in Astrakhan province. During World War I he headed the Department of Infectious Diseases of field hospital and then worked on the position of epidemiologist in Podolsk province.

In 1918 L.V. Hromashevsky went to Odessa where he was appointed to work in the first in Ukraine disinfection station, and along with practical work he began his researches.

On November 20th, 1920 L.V. Hromashevsky was elected on the position of senior laboratory assistant of the first in world Department of Epidemiology, organized by D.K Zabolotny in Odessa Medical Institute, and from 1923 he headed this Department. In subsequent years L.V. Hromashevsky organized and headed the Department of Epidemiology at Dniprovsky Medical Institute, Dnipropetrovsk Institute of Advanced Training of Physicians, also he worked as a director of Central Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology and organized Department of Epidemiology in the Central Postgraduate Medical Institute (Moscow). During these years, L.V. Hromashevsky developed theoretical problems of epidemiology, in which he creatively developed scientific concepts of his teacher D.K. Zabolotny.

L.V. Hromashevsky lobbied for the training of preventive medicine specialists and separation of Epidemiology as independent discipline that should be taught in medical schools. He created the first training program in Epidemiology, approved by Higher School Affairs Committee (1932), and considered it necessary that doctor of every specialty was training in Epidemiology.

In 1948 L.V. Hromashevsky on behalf of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR organized in Kyiv Institute of Infectious Diseases and headed it for three years. In 1948 L.V. Hromashevsky was elected on the position of the head of the Department of Epidemiology of Kyiv Medical Institute, where he worked until 1962.

L.V. Hromashevsky made a fundamental restructuring of the educational and research work of the department. Epidemiology began be taught in all departments, new topics of lectures and practical classes were included in the thematic plan. Lectures of L.V. Hromashevsky as follows from their content, polemical form of teaching, logical consistency, cogency of arguments, connection of theory and practice aroused great interest among students and physicians.

During his work at the Department of Epidemiology L.V. Hromashevsky continued the development of created by him the first epidemiological science-theory of the mechanism of transmission of infectious diseases. The principle of the theory of the mechanism of transmission of pathogens is that during evolution they have adapted to parasite not inside biological organism of host, and in its particular specific tissues where germs clear out of the body. The process of changing of biological host can exist only under such conditions, without which preservation of this species of the pathogen in nature is impossible. L.V. Hromashevsky made an important conclusion that the mechanism of transmission and specific localization of the parasite in the body are closely interrelated and mutually conditioned, confirming understanding of parasitism as a general biological phenomena in nature.

Classification of infectious diseases, developed by L.V. Hromashevsky on the basis of specific localization of pathogen and its corresponding mechanism of transmission, has received universal recognition and was adopted by WHO. Knowledge of the mechanism of transmission of pathogens allows for conducting effective preventive and anti-epidemic measures, which identified progress in the fight against infectious diseases.

At the Department under the direction of L.V. Hromashevsky conducted a deep research on “Mechanism of transmission of infectious diseases”, on the basis of which was published two collections of scientific papers (1958,1962). They established relationship between the mechanism of transmission and factors that implement it, types of epidemics and dynamics of the epidemic process.

L.V. Hromashevsky created the theory and methodology of Scientific Epidemiology, defined subject and method of this science, formulated the laws of Epidemiology, developed on evolutionary basis epidemiological natural-scientific classification of infectious diseases, identified areas of the fight against infectious diseases and criteria of elimination of some of them.

Department staff developed topical issues of Epidemiology and prevention of cholera, shigellosis, diphtheria, pertussis, helminthes, leptospirosis and others.

L.V. Hromashevsky established epidemiological research school. Dozens of Doctoral and Candidate’s dissertations were defended under his leadership. He issued the country’s first classic textbook on General Epidemiology (1949, 1965), which was translated in several countries, and Special Epidemiology (1947) and published more than 250 scientific papers.

L.V. Hromashevsky was one of the founders of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR and in 1946 he was one of the first awarded the title of member of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR. L.V. Hromashevsky took direct part in creation of WHO (1946).

Lev Hromashevsky fruitfully worked on further development of epidemiological science after moving in 1962 to work in Kyiv Research Institute of Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases on the position of Deputy Director of Research.

In 1967 L.V. Hromashevsky was awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labor for his role in the development of medical science and health protection.

In 1985, the Committee on Education, Science and Culture of the United Nations to honor the great men of the world, has decided to celebrate the 100th anniversary of their birth. These people included an outstanding epidemiologist L.V. Hromashevsky, whose 100th anniversary was celebrated in 1987. 3 volumes of his scientific papers were published and in 4 higher medical institutions of Ukraine established student grants named after L.V. Hromashevsky.

 

Ihor Mykolaiovych Morhunov (1913-1991 р.р.) – well-known scientist, immunologist-epidemiologist and professor.

He was born on October 20, 1913 in Mariupol, Kherson region in a family of a doctor.

After graduating in 1936 from Dnipropetrovsk Medical Institute, Igor worked on the position of research assistant in the Department of Epidemiology in Dnipropetrovsk Sanitary and Bacteriological Institute.

During World War II he was sent to the USSR People’s Commissariat for Health Protection in Irkutsk Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, where he headed the Department of Epidemiology, and then – Microbiology. In this Institute he organized a laboratory of wound infection, where he conducted research and prepared gangrenous and tetanus serums for front and rear hospitals.

In 1944 I.M. Morhunov returned to Dniprovsky Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology and worked there on the position of Deputy Director of bacterial preparations manufacturing and Research Deputy Director.

In 1949 he went to work in Kyiv Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, where he headed the immunological laboratory. At the same time for several years he worked on the position of Chief Epidemiologist of the Ministry of Health of the USSR. In 1959 he defended his Doctoral dissertation.

In 1962 I.M. Morgunov was elected on the position of head of the Department of Epidemiology of Kyiv Medical Institute, where he worked until 1987 and then was promoted to the position of professor of the Department.

I.M. Morhunov, sharing scientific concepts of L.V. Hromashevsky and continuing their development, his theoretical and experimental studies devoted to the study of body reactivity in epidemic process, proved important scientific position of the mechanism of infection with various infectious diseases, which is the initial process of interaction between pathogen and organism.

I.M. Morhunov and his students studied the epidemiology and immunology of infections caused by opportunistic pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, tetanus agents, botulism, etc.) and established experimental model of aerobic and anaerobic infections.

Comprehensive study of secondary wound infection allowed to set incidence rates, groups, time, and risk factors and to justify the role of endogenous microflora in the development of this disease in surgical environment and during experiment. In particular, conducted studies helped to identify patterns of immune responses in the event of emergence and modeling the wound infection that became the basis of development of methods of its diagnosis and prevention.

He developed technique of improving immunization with respiratory infections in the form of information search system using punch cards for planning and recording of mass vaccination, which was awarded a silver medal at the exhibition of achievements of national economy (1985).

He put to work immunological methods in Epidemiology, introduced in the Department new topics in Epidemiology using these methods and developed training program in Immunology.

M.M. Morhunov published more than 200 scientific publications, including 4 monographs, trained 10 Doctors and 28 Candidates of Science. He received 10 certificate of invention.

 

Yuriy Denysovych Hots (1930 -2006  р.р.) – renowned scientist and epidemiologist, professor.

He was born on August 7, 1930 in the village Teleshivka, Rakytniansky district, Kyiv region in a family of teacher.

In 1955 he graduated with honors from Hygienic Faculty of Kyiv Medical Institute, he studied in post-graduate training program at the Department of Epidemiology of Kyiv Medical Institute and graduated from it in 1958. He is a disciple of L.V. Hromashevsky. He worked at the Department on the position of Assistant professor, Candidate of Medical Sciences (1967) and Professor (1989).

From 1987 to 2005 – Head of the Department of Epidemiology, and 2005-2006 – Professor of the Department. From 1985 to 1989 he worked on the position of Dean of Medical and Preventive Faculty.

Researches directed at studying the effectiveness of vaccination against pertussis, identifying epidemiological features of this infectious disease in long-term epidemiological observations in conditions of mass immunization.

Questions of Epidemiology were studied and prevention of intra-hospital infections were developed, especially in high-risk groups of anaerobic and associated etiology in surgical hospital. He revealed pathogenicity of epidermal aureus, which requires appropriate preventive and anti-epidemic measures. At the department for the first time created a model of localized bacteroid infection, was shown high immunological and epidemiological effectiveness of new methods of diagnosis and rehabilitation of carriers of opportunistic bacterial population in high-risk groups in health care settings; developed ways of using immunomodulators for the treatment and prevention of wound infections of mixed etiology.

Department staff conducted research on the problem of prevention of respiratory tract infections, which are controlled by means of immunization and created information search system using punch cards for planning and recording of mass vaccination of children.

Causes of epidemic of diphtheria in Ukraine in 1991-2001 were studied. Researchers found that, unlike previous epidemics of diphtheria, modern epidemics in conditions of mass immunization is characterized by an overwhelming incidence of morbidity of adult and vaccinated, both adults and children; defined one of the leading high-risk groups for diphtheria – patients with acute upper respiratory tract disorders, and identified epidemiological link between the incidence of diphtheria and acute upper respiratory tract pathology.

Department staff developed a new way of modeling experimental diphtheria intoxication in immune animals, which let reproduce the mechanism of development of temporal susceptibility of immune organism to diphtheria toxin. They studied pathogenetic mechanism of the incidence of diphtheria of vaccinated and immune, enabling possibility to improve epidemiological surveillance of high-risk groups.

He is the co-author of two textbooks for students – “Epidemiology” (1998) and “Epidemiology with the basics of medical parasitology” (2001), published 12 textbooks from different sections of Epidemiology, developed training programs in epidemiology for students, medical interns and masters, which were issued by Ministry of Health of Ukraine.

At the department were trained 3 Candidates of Sciences. He is the author of over 200 scientific papers. He received 3 patents of invention.

 

Iryna Pavlivna Kolesnikova was born on March 9, 1965 in Kharkiv in the family of engineer. In 1988 she graduated with honors from Hygienic Faculty of Kharkiv Medical Institute. From 1988 she worked on the position of Senior laboratory assistant, since 1992 – Teaching assistant, since 2002 – Assistant Professor of the Department of Epidemiology in Kharkiv State Medical University. From 1997 – Candidate of Medical Sciences, from 2004 – Doctor of Medical Sciences. From September 2005 – Head of the Department of Epidemiology in Bogomolets National Medical University. In 2007 she received academic degree “Professor”.

I.P. Kolesnikova has more than 160 scientific and methodical publications, 1 patent for invention, 2 innovation proposals, 4 bulletins and 2 guidelines of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine. She is co-author of 1 textbook and 3 study guides in Epidemiology. Scientific work of I.P. Kolesnikova is dedicated to study the influence of various factors of exogenous and endogenous origin on the state of specific immunity against infections that are controlled by means of immunization. In particular, subject of her Candidate’s dissertation was to study the effects of acute pneumonia, acute and obstructive bronchitis to the level of tension of postvaccinal measles immunity. I.P. Kolesnikova using modern immunological methods found the nature and duration of the impact of burn injury, septic infections, viral hepatitis, asthma, glomeruli and pyelonephritis on the state of measles, antidiphtheritic and tetanus immunity in previously vaccinated persons.

Since 1999 scientific and methodical publications of I.P. Kolesnikova were devoted to determining ways to optimize epidemiological surveillance of controlled infections and improving tactics of their vaccination. Results of the study of population of mumps and measles immunity, conducted in different regions of Ukraine, served as a basis for the changes made to the calendar of vaccinations. The study of reactogenicity and immunogenicity of all mumps vaccines, registered in Ukraine, led make conclusions about the appropriateness of their use for vaccination of children and adolescents. The results of all these studies formed the basis of her Doctoral dissertation, which I.P. Kolesnikova defended in 2004.

In recent years, I.P. Kolesnikova has been actively involved in the implementation in the work of medical institutions and the Sanitary and Epidemiological Service of Ukraine new software programs of epidemiological surveillance of communicable diseases, planning of immunization, accelerated analysis and monitoring of immunization – “Epidinf”, “Fluvac-D”, “Stat”, “UkrVak”, developed in conjunction with epidemiologists. All forms of data entry for these programs, the initial accounting documents, analytical monitoring table correspond to existing Decrees of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine. The use of these computer technology contributes to the improvement of epidemiological surveillance of communicable diseases, simplification and standardization of accounting records, allows in a very short time to conduct in-depth analysis of all quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the epidemic process, as well as key indicators of immunization of children and adults.