Bogomolets National Medical University

Department of Surgery №1

History of the Department

Department of Surgery №1. The oldest Department of the University, the first clinic of Medical Faculty which was established at the University in 1844 according to the new status of the medical faculties and was named the Department of Faculty Surgery. Professor V.O. Karavaiev, a world-renowned surgeon and a former student, and follower of M.I. Pyrogov, was the first chief of the Department in the first 40 year of its existence.
This Department has a rich and famous history. After V.O. Karavaiev the Department was headed by the famous Ukrainian surgeons, who glorified not only the University, but also all our surgery. Their science-related, clinical and pedagogical activity made them the pride of the University. There is an impressive list of famous names, who have been heading of this Department for a long period of its existence: O.H.Rinek, L.A.Malynovskyi, M.M.Volkovych, Ye.G.Cherniakhivskyi, O.P. Krymov, I.M.Ishchenko, I.M. Matiashyn.
First, in 1844, the University surgical clinic was located on the first floor of the main building of the University and was designed for 20 beds for patients with surgical and eye disorders, and consisted of three chambers, operating, insulator and classrooms. During 25 years the clinic had exactly the above written structure.
Dean of the medical faculty V.O.Karavaiev has improved the University and medical education, also was the founder of differential medical science.
O.H.Rinek (1837-1916) was the head of the clinic from 1881 until 1893. Pedagogical and clinical skills of O.H. Rinek was formed directly under the influence of V.O. Karavaiev. O.H.Rinek had a brilliant surgical techniques. He had a high surgeon’s and scientific reputation. Under the O.H. Rinek’ supervision systematic investigations of the transplantation of mucous membranes in the little known at that moment the field of plastic surgery were started in the clinic. During this period the teaching of surgery at the Department has continued the traditions of V.O.Karavaiev and reached a high scientific level.
Professor M.A. Malynovskyi (1854-1915) was a head of the Department from 1893 until 1911. And then his career was directly related to neurosurgery. Some questions regarding surgical training that are concerned operations on the nervous system were considered in the work of M.A. Malynovskyi “Surgical intervention for nervous system disorders”(1893) for the first time, also the author presented the complex principle based on a collective decision both a surgeon and neurologist about questions concerning diagnose and (if it’s necessary) surgical treatment. His work “About brain abscess” (1981) also is very important for the development of Ukrainian surgery, in which he defends the position that the surgery is the most optimal treatment of brain abscess.
M.M.Volkovych was the first scientist who combined otology and laryngology into one clinical discipline. In 1986 he developed the method of nasal surgery on the finger, which he called the “Russian way”. The direction in otolaryngology surgery (especially in the treatment of malignant tumors) was defined by M.M. Volkovych. The recent studies fully confirmed validity of this direction. In his practical and scientific activity M.M.Volkovych paid great attention to the development of orthopedics and traumatology. He suggested various convenience simple cardboards and plaster bandages which didn’t make strong pressure on muscles. Volkovych’s braces with straps had special popularit, they also are used nowadays for immobilizing a hip fracture. In his work “Some question about of extirpation of a goiter” (1885). M.M.Volkovych discribed new questions about myxedema. This paper presents interesting data about microscopic structure of the excreted pathological changed thyroid gland.
These observations were completely published in 1888, in the reports of a Committee of the Clinical Society in London.
M.M.Volkovych contributed many innovations in stomach surgery. In his paper “About abdominal incisions” (1898) he described the method appendix surgery incision. He was the first scientist, who defined one of the early symptoms of acute appendicitis – unexpected onset of pain in epigastria.
Volkovych is a name which is associated with evolution of views on the gallbladder surgery and biliary tract. At the beginning of twenty century he was one of the first, who started to work on the surgical treatment of gallstone disease. Contrary to the point of view of a great West European surgeon Ker, M.M.Volkovych suggested and carried out so-called subserous removals of a gall bladder with the further closing of its bed with peritoneum before Vitushnia.
He was the first surgeon in the Russian Empire who operated the patient with combustion of the stomach and esophagus, and published a report about this in the journal “Russian doctor”.
M.M.Volkovych developed a really new area of surgery: spine and thoracic surgery, radical operations on the lungs.
He made a considerable contribution in gynecology and urology. Volkovych paid much attention to pedagogical work. Under his supervision all students careful and responsible executed their duties and had attentive attitude to patients.
He was demanding to himself and to others and had a high level of culture, was honest and frank, and tried to convey these qualities to students. Pedagogical work was art for him and he introduced active teaching.
It is important to know that scientific discoveries, proposals and theories of Volkovych (and his students) are still actual in modern science.
The main priority of scientific activity in the M.M.Volkovych’s opinion was its social value.
Ye.G.Cherniakhivskyi was the head of the Department of Surgery from 1923 until 1929, a Kyiv University graduate, student of M.M.Volkovych.
Ye.G.Cherniakhivskyi paid much attention to the complicated questions concerning surgical infection and blood vessel surgery, and he had an excellent operation experience in this area. He also has improved surgical teaching. He was organizator lectures for the private docent courses “Surgical diagnosis” (Yu.Yu.Kramarenko), “Surgery of the abdominal cavity” (A.Ye.Gusman), ” Method of research of surgical patient” (I.M.Ishchenko), “Children’s surgery” (V.I.Gedroits). Professor V.I.Gedroits was the head of the Department of Surgery from 1929 until 1930.
Ye.G.Cherniakhivskyi popularized and started to use the method of blood transfusion in 20-ies in Ukraine. He was the first Kyiv surgeons who successfully sewed the wound in the heart and summarized the literature data in May 1904.
In 1930 O.P.Krymov was the head of the Department of Surgery (1872- 1954). O.P.Krymov was a student and follower of schools of such Russian surgeons as O.O.Bobrov, S.P.Fedotov, S.I.Spasokukotskyi, M.I.Diakonov, and in the same time he saved and developed the best traditions of his predecessors at the Department – V.O.Karavaiev, M.M.Volkovych and others.
The scientific heritage of O.P.Krymov can be divided into 4 research directions: military field surgery, kidney disease and around the kidney tissue, herniology, history of Ukrainian medicine.
The educational school, in the person of O.P.Krymov, had a wonderful pedagogue. His textbook “a Course of special surgery” (1940) during 15 years was the main study guide in the medical institutions. O.P.Krymov read the lectures sharing his great enthusiasm, attended practical classes, accustomed future doctors of clinical thinking and passed them his many years’ experience.
O.P.Krymov was not only a scientist, doctor and pedagogue , but also he was active involved in social work. In 1919, the Kiev scientists elected him a Chairman of the Physical-medical society. Since 1928 he was the head of Kyiv surgical society, and in 1948 he was elected as the Chairman of the Congresses of the Surgeons of USSR.
Corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Honoured Scientist of USSR, Professor I.M.Ishchenko was the head of the Department of Surgery from 1955 until 1968.
Scientific activity of I.M.Ishchenko had the characteristic features: inexhaustible interest to a wide range of interests regarding surgery questions, fresh response to urgent surgical problems. I.M.Ishchenko became a good experimenter when he held the positon of the head of the department (1933-1936) of experimental surgery of the Institute of experimental biology and pathology. The special I.M.Ishchenko’s scientific result is complex scientific research. It is necessary to note that he has got scientific contacts (based on the complex approach) with morphologists, biochemist, therapists, oncologists, physicists, mathematicians and others. Pedagogical talent of I.M.Ishchenko was perhaps the most outstanding part in his activity. His lectures were always very interesting. During demonstrating of a patient, he could identify and extract the individuality of a patient and in this way student remembered the patient and the general picture of a disease. I.M.Ishchenko tried to give students system of modern views and logically scientific scheme. In his opinion that clinics should teach students, give them medical materials and never be filled one or two groups of patients.
From 1954 until 1966 I.M.Ishchenko was elected a Chairman of the Ukrainian society of surgeons, member of the Board of the USSR Society of surgeons.
Professor G.M.Matiashyn, former student of the Donetsk school of surgeons, was elected on a post of the head of the Department of faculty surgery in 1968, and he worked in this position until 1979. His talent was a combination of humane doctor, teacher, scientist and public person talent. His research interests concerned such problems as clinical transfusiology, reconstructive surgery of the gastrointestinal tract, diagnostics and treatment of malignant tumors of the digestive system, diseases of liver and biliary tracts, organization of surgical service. G.M.Matiashyn published the monograph “Total Plasticity of a Gullet Thick Gut”, in which he described an improved methodology of colonic esophagoplasty using the left half of the colon, improved the formation of esophageal-intestinal and interintestinal anastomoses. This book is a desktop textbook for specialists of reconstructive surgery. He developed the methods that could clearly define the boundaries of spreading of tumors of the esophagus.
The works of Professor G.M.Matiashyn on the problems of emergency surgery, first of all, the publications, which reported the theoretical and practical issues of thromboses and embolism mesenteric vessels are very remarkable. In these papers, he presented some new theoretical principles, which was used in the work “About the single doctrine of surgery”. An experienced teacher-innovator G.M.Matiashyn clearly saw new prospects for surgery development (organizational, methodological, diagnostic, teaching) and has successfully realized them. During the years, when he was the head of the Deparment, he created a modern intensive care unit, proctological clinic, which since 1986 became the Republican center, equipped educational block with nice course stands, created library of slides. In the same time he had a position of the chief surgeon of the Ministry of health of Ukraine, he spent lot of time to improve of surgical service in the Republic.
Yu.M.Mohniuk was the head of the Deparment from 1980 until 1989, he continued practical and scientific traditions of the Department. Outstanding surgery A.A.Amosov was his teacher. This cooperation allowed Yu.M.Mohniuk to master surgery of the heart and lungs and influenced on the formation of his clinical thinking. He was the first in the country who started to work out the methods of treatment of aortic valve disease.
We should note that traditionally during the long history of the University, starting from Professor M.M.Volkovych’ period, head of Department of faculty surgery was also elected a Chairman of the scientific surgical society. This tradition also was saved by Yu.M.Mohniuk. During many days surgeons from city and the region meet in the audience of the Department of faculty surgery twice a month to discuss the most important theoretical and clinical problems of surgery. The head of these meetings was Yu.M.Mohniuk. Scientific and pedagogical traditions of surgeons of the clinic were developed in the papers and activities of the staff of the Department, under the supervision of Professor Yu.V.Baltaitys. In 1989 he became the Head of the Department, he together with the staff of the clinic participated in a huge work on improvement of surgery teaching taking into account the conditions of the increased role of technical training and higher education reforms. The contribution to science of the clinic collective, under supervising of Yu.V.Baltaitys was very serious. Under his supervison there were successfully improved the questions concerning conservative and restorative operations on the colon, diagnostics and treatment of surgical diseases of the abdominal cavity with wide implementation of modern endoscopic technologies.
Most of the organizational and tactical recommendations of the Department collective were introduced in Ukraine. Original methods for recovery operations and the questions about pathophysiology of colon were reported in the lectures and research talks, with which Professor Yu.V.Baltaitys made presentations at university and surgical associations of the USA, Germany, Israel. In many years’ activity of the Department heads – scientific, pedagogical, organizational and social – we can clearly see a continuity. They had a creative minds, optimism, great erudition, science initiative, brilliant surgical technique. They were the founders of schools and organizators of the surgical community.
In 2001 Professor M.P.Zakharash was elected the Head of the Department. Before he hold a position of the Professor of the Department and nowadays he continues to keep nice traditions of the Department of surgical and scientific activity. For the short period of his supervision of the Department he has realized the endoscopic method and minInvasive surgery in the diseases of organs of abdominal cavity. The professor staff of the Department productive works for improvement of educational-methodical, scientific and medical work.