Department of Hygiene and Ecology №3
History of department
The independent department of communal hygiene in Kyiv medical institute was established through uniting in 1935 the assistant professorship of sanitary hydrotechnics, geology and meteorology, heating and ventilation, construction machinery, housing and municipal sanitation, which since 1930 existed within department of general hygiene.
The beginning of XXI century is remarkable in the history for development of hygiene and epidemiology in Ukraine, in particular in Bogomolets National medical university. In 2005 they will celebrate 75th anniversary for establishment of sanitary hygienic faculty in Kyiv medical institute. This period means that 70 years passed since establishment of independent department of communal hygiene in the medical institute.
The prehistory of these remarkable events starts since 1871, when the medical faculty in Kyiv St. Volodymyr University established one of the first in Russia department of hygiene, medical police, medical geography and statistics, which was headed by professor Viktor Andriyovych Subbotin since establishment until 1893.
V.A. Subbotin (1844-1896) was one of the first pioneers in hygienic science and teachers of hygiene in Ukraine. He was born in c. Pryluky in Chernihiv province. He graduated from medical faculty in Kyiv university and residency on therapy. In 1869-1871 he was in foreign trip (the significant period of time – at M. Pettenkofer), where he passed through training for degree of professor. After return to Kyiv, he organized and during over 20 years (since 1871) managed the department of hygiene in Kyiv university. Initiator for establishment of city sanitary commission in 1875 in c. Kyiv. Author of the first textbook on hygiene (1880) and many scientific works in different spheres of hygiene. Works by V.A. Subbotin were mainly devoted to issues on general and communal hygiene, first of all hygiene of hospitals, sanitary protection of ponds, medical geography. The special works by V.A. Subbotin are devoted to the problems on sanitary protection of ponds against contamination with waste waters by enterprises of sugar industry.
The abovementioned events in the life of Kyiv medical institute occurred at the background of adopting the significant state decisions about improvement of medical preventive activity. The decree about sanitary authorities of republic in 1922 legislated the main provisions about sanitary service, its rights and duties. People’s commissariats of health care in Ukrainian SSR organized the sanitary antiepidemic divisions, held the search for optimal structure and forms for activity of establishment in sanitary epidemiological service. The first head in such division in Ukraine since 1920 until 1922 was famous hygienist V.G. Sobolev, who further carried out the great scientific organizational and teaching work on hygiene, in particular in Kharkiv. Since 1922 the head in sanitary epidemiological division at People’s commissariat of health care in UkrSSR was O.M. Marzeyev, who involved the most experienced and progressive district sanitary doctors M.Yu. Brodskyy, M.V. Yevmenyev, O.I. Pyzhev, S.A. Tomylin, L.D. Ulianov, etc. into the work at sanitary epidemiological division. Since that time Ukrainian sanitary meetings were regularly convoked, in which at first all sanitary doctors took part and further with increase of sanitary organization – their representatives. More than 10 years, until transfer of People’s commissariat of health care of UkrSSR to Kyiv in 1934, O.M. Marzeyev managed the sanitary antiepidemic service in Ukraine. There was no significant sanitary legislative act, in which preparation he did not take part. In particular, in 1922 at the congress of sanitary doctors of Ukraine it was O.M. Marzeyev who suggested the idea for organization of sanitary epidemiological stations (SES) in the places, as the main chain for sanitary epidemiological service. The first SES was established in 1922 in Gomel. Soon in 1927 the district, city and regional SES were established in UkrSSR and later in the whole territory of former USSR.
The main content in work of sanitary epidemiological service during 20-30-ies was the liquidation of serious sanitary consequences from civil war, development and implementation of recommendations for construction and reconstruction of settlements, study and improvement of working and living conditions for employees in metallurgical, mining and other spheres of industry, sanitary supervision for construction and operation of water supply and sewerage facilities, cleaning of settlements, quality of ambient air, etc. The great attention was paid to improvement of hygienic culture of population, establishment of sanitary active members.
The engagement of sanitary doctors into solution of almost all principal issues on designing, reconstruction and construction of settlements, industrial enterprises, educational establishments, organization of public catering, optimization of working and living conditions became the usual norm for activity of state enterprises and establishments. In connection with the great scope of industrial and civil construction in 1933 they established all-Union state sanitary inspection (ASSI) in order to provide with preventive and sanitary supervision.
Thus, during 30-ies well thought and organized system for state sanitary supervision that functioned on scientific basis and had the real rights had been established. Doctors-hygienists and epidemiologists, specially trained at sanitary hygienic faculties in medical higher schools, started working at it.
In 1930-1933 the department of general hygiene in Kyiv medical institute was managed by professor Fedir Andriyoych Bashtan. He organized the assistant professorship on terms of hour rate wage at department for the needs of sanitary hygienic faculty. Starting since 1930 the course of sanitary hydrotechnics was read by professor engineer V.K. Krasnitskyy. Since 1931 until 1936 the course of geology, hydrology and hydrometeorology was read by professor S.K. Komarnytskyy, assistant professor engineer M.I. Kviatkivskyy – course on basics for heat supply, heating and ventilation of residential buildings.
Professor F.O. Bashtan
(1894 – date of death is unknown)
Professor F.O. Bashtan himself in 1931 read the independent course of communal hygiene for the first time in Kyiv medical institute for those students in medical preventive faculty, who during the last year of study were passing through specialization on sanitary hygienic profession (so-called sanitary trend). The decision about introduction of such specialization in 1921 was taken by all-Ukrainian conference on medical education. Among the first students-graduates, who were specialized in sanitary hygienic business and who passed through course of lectures on communal hygiene, there was G.Kh. Shakhbazian, R.D. Gabovych – famous scientists-hygienists in the future (R.D. Gabovych was the head at department of communal hygiene, then general hygiene, G.Kh. Shakhbazian – department of industrial hygiene in Kyiv Bogomolets medical institute). Namely since the first independent course, which was read by professor F.O. Bashtan in 1931, the department of communal hygiene (now communal hygiene and human ecology at Bogomolets National medical university) starts its history.
In the 30-ies the sanitary hygienic faculty in Kyiv medical institute established the independent special departments: of epidemiology in 1932, communal hygiene, school hygiene and food hygiene in 1935 in order to provide with more substantial education on medical preventive disciplines. Thus, the independent department of communal hygiene in Kyiv medical institute was established in 1935 through uniting the assistant professorships of sanitary hydrotechnics, geology and meteorology, heating and ventilation, construction machinery, housing and municipal sanitation, which earlier existed within department of hygiene. The first head at department (1935-1936) was assistant professor Mykola Vasylyovych Yevmenyev, in the past district sanitary doctor. At the beginning of the 20-ies he worked under supervision of O.M. Marzeyev in sanitary epidemiological division at People’s commissariat of health care.
The department received a separate premise in St. Volodymyr University (now T.G. Shevchenko National university). M.V. Yevmenyev moved from Kyiv to Dnipropetrovsk. In 1940-1941 the department of communal hygiene was established in Dnipropetrovsk medical institute. Since that time until 1952 he was the head at that department.
Academician in NAS of USSR O.M. Marzeyev with
professor V.M. Zhabotynskyy
During 47 years O.M. Marzeyev was working in Ukraine, among them 20 years in Kharkiv. At the beginning of his activity he worked as a district sanitary doctor in Verkhnyodniprovskyy district in Katerynoslav province.
During the First World War (1914-1918) he passed the way from military doctor to chief sanitary doctor in Rumanian front.
Soon after liberation of Kyiv, Kyiv medical institute was re-evacuated and sanitary hygienic faculty renewed its activity. The department of communal hygiene also renewed its work. In 1944 O.M. Marzeyev became the head at department. He managed this department until the end of his life. At the same time he was the head at department of communal hygiene in the medical refresher institute in Kyiv. Assistant professor Izdebskyy A.M., assistants Kryzhanivska M.V. (now professor), Ignatyeva T.K., Berezivska G.M., Gurgenova N.M., senior laboratory assistant-chemist Didkivska L.V., postgraduate students Dudnyk M.P., Bogomolov F.I., Kurinnyy I.L. worked together with him at department. Candidate of Medicine Malezhyk P.V. – head at laboratory of water supply at SRI of general and communal hygiene was engaged into performance of practical classes on the terms of hour rate wage.
The working conditions at department and, in particular, during the first postwar years were hard. The department was located in the adopted building – in 3 rooms flat and with the area of 98 sq. m in residential building in Chkalova str., 65. The department remained there until 1967. During postwar period the academic process and scientific researches were held under difficult conditions: there was a deficiency in textbooks, study guides, laboratory equipment. Despite that situation, the department carried out the intensive work: the lectures, anticipated by curricula, were read in full volume, the laboratory classes were held; the classes with visits to river water main, bath houses and laundries, hospitals and hostels, other facilities were organized; the department was improved with the new equipment, apparatuses and devices.
In 1951 they published the first textbook “Communal hygiene”, created by O.M. Marzeyev, for students of sanitary hygienic faculties in medical institutes, later it was translated in Polish and Chinese languages. The list 186 works by O.M. Marzeyev reflects his versatile sanitary activity and extremely various scientific interests. His favorite objects in the work were Donbas and Ukrainian village. After serious operation not long before his death O.M. Marzeyev committed the real great labor exploit, having prepared for publication the manuscript for the 2nd edition of textbook “Communal hygiene”, as well as personal memories about his activity as a sanitary doctor, which were published in 1965 under title “Notes of sanitary doctor”. Textbook “Communal hygiene” ran four editions (1951, 1968, 1971, 1979) and became a handbook not only for students in medical institutes and practical sanitary doctors.
The rapid and intensive liquidation of unfavorable consequences from war in terms of sanitation, restoration of ruined cities, villages, industry, agriculture in temporarily occupied regions, perspective plans for development of economics, national economy, culture, development of new territories set the principally new tasks to the hygiene, in particular, communal hygiene and sanitary practice. During that period the scientific researches were devoted to hygienic assessment of living conditions for population in c. Kyiv, study on efficiency of small quarter furnaces to burn rubbish, establishment of area for sanitary protection health resort Vorzel. O.M. Marzeyev himself, being at the same time at the head of department and department of communal hygiene in Ukrainian SRI made two SRW “Destruction of cities in Ukraine during the war and occupation and hygienic conditions for their restoration” and “Destruction of rural settlements in Ukraine during the war and occupation and hygienic basics for their restoration”. These works were made mainly on the base of SRI as the department had no necessary material base at that time.
The second period in activity of department of communal hygiene in Kyiv medical institute starts in 1956, when after death of academician O.M. Marzeyev the department was managed by his pupil corresponding member in AMS of USSR honorary scientist of UkrSSR professor Denys Mykolayovych Kaliuzhnyy.
Kaliuzhnyy (1900-1976). After graduation from Kharkiv medical institute in 1932 D.M. Kaliuzhnyy worked in Ukrainian scientific research institute of communal hygiene under supervision of O.M. Marzeyev. During the Great Patriotic War he was appointed to the post of sanitary epidemiological laboratory in the 1st Ukrainian front.
D.M. Kaliuzhnyy published over 200 scientific works, devoted to sanitary protection of ambient air, hygiene of planning and organization of public services in settlements, hygienic issues on field arrangement of troops. In his works he described the mechanism for action of some air pollutants on organism, laws for their prevalence around metallurgical enterprises, influence on public health. These works became the grounds for sanitary classification of industrial enterprises and scientific explanation for sizes of sanitary protective areas. Continuing the researches of his teacher O.M. Marzeyev on problems of rural hygiene, D.M. Kaliuzhnyy made the significant contribution into hygienic grounds for forecasts of development, organization of public services and site development of rural settlements in Ukraine, zoning their territory taking into consideration the environmental pollution, etc.
Thus, if during pre-war and first war years the main object of scientific study and practical activity of specialists in the sphere of communal hygiene were mainly the sanitary technical aspects of health care (sanitary technical measures on improvement of ambient air, protection of ground-based ponds, public welfare of settlements and individually located objects), then under conditions of scientific technical progress the most urgent one became the study and hygienic regulation for influence if certain environmental factors and their complex on public health. The production and ever-growing use of the new chemical substances in agriculture, industry, construction, life stipulated the necessity in study of laws for migration of those substances in the biosphere, detection of peculiarities both for total toxic action of abovementioned factors and remote consequences from their influence on human: carcinogenic, mutagenous, teratogenic, embryotoxic, allergic, etc. The problem on hygienic standardization for content of chemical substances in the ambient air, soil, water, air in residential premises became urgent. The objects of hygienic researches also were the physical environmental factors: electromagnetic radiation, noise and vibration influences, weather and climatic conditions.
The large spread and social importance of cardiovascular, oncologic and other diseases with non-infectious nature stipulated the need in detection and hygienic study on all exogenous risk factors for their origin and exacerbation of their course. The creative cooperation of specialists on communal hygiene and oncologists allowed receiving the new data in relation to sources and consequences from ambient air pollution and other environmental objects with chemical carcinogens, in particular, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, generalizing the principles for regulation of their content in air, soil and water.
The third period in activity of department is linked with appointment of Rafael Davydovych Gabovych (born on 16.12.1909) to the post of its head in 1960, who during last year of study in Kyiv medical institute was specialized in sanitary hygienic occupation and attended the first course of communal hygiene, which was read in 1931 by professor F.A. Bashtan. When R.D. Gabovych was at the head (1960-1968) professors and teachers and academic auxiliary staff at department consisted of 11 persons. They were assistants Kryzhanivska M.V., Ignatyeva T.K., Kurinnyy I.L., Riazhev B.G., Nikberg I.I., senior laboratory assistants Pigida-Zegler N.M. Leviant E.A., Semenchenko Z.M. Professor R.D. Gabovych involved the perspective young employees – assistant and since 1964 assistant professor Goncharuk Ye.G., postgraduate students B.P. Suchkov, K.K. Vrochynskyy, V.I. Tsypriian, G.P. Stepanenko, who became the famous scientists in the future, into the work at department. Today professor V.I. Tsypriian manages the department of food hygiene and professors B.P. Suchkov and G.P. Stepanenko fruitfully work at department of propedeutics of hygiene, military and radiation hygiene.
The experimental direction of researches in the sphere of hygiene of water supply, treatment and decontamination of waste waters, study on hygienic importance for micro elementary composition of environmental objects became the leading one in the scientific topics of department. One of the directions in scientific work of the collective at department was the researches by R.D. Gabovych on study of hygienic importance for fluorine in drinking water. Under experimental conditions R.D. Gabovych studied the fluorine exchange in organism and action of water with different concentrations of fluorine on functional state of organs and physiological systems, as well as on some indices for reactivity of organism. He made the examinations and described the disease of fluorosis and caries among population of Ukraine. For the first time he described the seats of epidemic fluorosis in the territory of Ukraine and pointed out to the interrelation between concentration of fluorine in drinking water and clinical picture of fluorosis. R.D. Gabovych composed the maps for content of fluorine in underground waters of Ukraine, grounded the necessity in fluoridization of drinking water and preventive measures on prevention of epidemic fluorosis and dental caries. The employees at department, its postgraduate students and students-members in the club under supervision of professor R.D. Gabovych during that period made the scientific researches on some urgent problems, namely: “Hygienic issues on ozonization of drinking and waste water”, “Hygienic problems on micro elements and fluoridization of drinking water”, etc.
At the same time the employees at department made numerous researches on hygiene of hospitals. The results from these researches caused to scientific resonance among hygienists. Professor R.D. Gabovych organized and in 1966 performed the first all-Union conference on hygiene of hospitals. The general directions and methodological approaches to further study of this issue were developed as a result from work of the conference. Assistant professor Kryzhanivska M.V., assistant Ignatyeva T.K. fruitfully worked on solution of problem “Hygienic basics for city planning” under supervision of professor Gabovych R.D.
The experience sanitary doctors from Kyiv city SES Yavdoshchuk V.Kh., Katsen Ye, Dniprovskyy river water supply system Dunayevskyy V.A., Andrusenko D.G. and departmental laboratory in Kyiv administration of water supply-sewerage system Dobrushyna S.Y., inspectors from division of communal hygiene in Chief sanitary epidemiological administration at MHC of UkrSSR Kortylyov S.P., Doroshenko V.P., Kucheriava V.M. were involved into performance of practical classes on communal hygiene.
The collective of teachers at department was working on creation of textbooks. The material base of department was constantly changing. Thanks to efforts by R.D. Gabovych (in 1967 he was the dean in sanitary hygienic faculty), all hygienic department started the new 1967/1968 academic year in the new base – five storey sanitary hygienic building, being newly built and put into operation. A separate floor was allocated to department of communal hygiene and industrial hygiene for academic process and scientific researches.
The department of communal hygiene received the premises on the fifth floor in academic building with the total area of 329 sq. m., where there were 6 academic and 5 scientific laboratories. It assisted to improvement in organization both of academic process and scientific researches. Acting experimental models of ozonation device, models of local treatment facilities with underground filtration of waste waters were created in scientific research laboratories at department. The sphere of scientific interests at department was significantly enlarged and the methodical level of researches, enriched with modern ways was deepened. A number of new directions in scientific search were developed along with traditional ones.
Академік Є.Г. Гончарук
Starting since 1968, when the post of head at department of communal hygiene was occupied by professor Yevgen Gnatovych Goncharuk, the scientific topics of department concentrated on two main directions:
1) sanitary public welfare of rural settlements and isolated objects;
2) development of theoretical basics, methodology and principal scheme for standardization of exogenous chemical substances in the soil.
The experimental direction in pedagogical activity and scientific topics of department became the leading one.
The staff of department was increased. Assistant professors Kurinnyy I.L., Rakhov G.M., assistants Tsypriian V.I., Prokopov V.O., Karmazin V.Ye., Fedorenko Z.P., postgraduate student Shuliak Ye.V., senior laboratory assistant-chemist Semenchenko Z.M., 5 anatomists were working at department together with him. The change of generations took place. The new employees came to the department. Among them there was Derevianko Ya.Ya., Voloshyn V.O., Garkavyy S.I., Geyets V.I., postgraduate students Avramenko L.M., Spasov O.S. (from Bulgarian People’s Republic), scientific workers Salata O.V., Nikonyonok V.O., Shostak L.B., senior laboratory assistants Savina R.V., Zhurba T.V., Tsenilova S.O., Orlova T.I., etc. Many of them now work in the scientific research institutes, Kyiv medical academy of postgraduate education, practical sanitary epidemiological service.
The equipment of department was replenished with the new devices and medical equipment. The new modern methods of research were introduced into practical classes. The significant attention was paid to teaching of preventive sanitary supervision. The following textbooks were published: course of lectures “Local sewerage system” p. 1, 2 (1970), “Preventive sanitary supervision in civil construction” (1972), “Basics foe preventive sanitary supervision” (1975), first all-Union “Manual to practical classes on communal hygiene”, that ran three editions (Medicine, 1977, 1982, 1990). The employees at department created 15 new academic projects in all sections of communal hygiene. All-Union program on communal hygiene for students in the fourth and sixth courses in sanitary hygienic faculties at medical institutes was established and approved under his supervision (M., 1976, 1984). It should be mentioned that the students in higher medical schools in Russia now study communal hygiene due to abovementioned program. “Guidelines for performance of primary specialization on communal hygiene”, etc. were published at department (K., 1985, 1991 (in Ukrainian language).
Ye.G. Goncharuk at lecture
According to decision by rector’s office in 1987/1988 a. y. the department is charged with teaching the course of radiation hygiene for students in sanitary hygienic faculty. The name of department was changed. It became the department of communal and radiation hygiene. The new radiometric devices were purchased by department in order to improve the training of students on dosimetric control. The dosimetric laboratory was established. The collective of department took part in fulfillment of scientific topics, related to the problem on liquidation of consequences from accident in Chornobyl nuclear power plant (ChNPP).
In 1996 the department was renamed into “Department of communal hygiene and human ecology”, since that time the department teaches the communal hygiene and human ecology to students in IV and VI courses in four medical faculties, doctors-interns and since 2001/2002 academic year the department started working with subresidents of medical preventive occupation.
Goncharuk Yevgen Gnatovych suddenly died on 19, April, 2004. Buried in Baykovo cemetery in Kyiv.
Department of communal hygiene and human ecology (2004)
Professor Garkavyy S.I.
Since 21, April, 2004 the duties for head at department were laid to professor Garkavyy Serhii Ivanovych, pupil of academician in NAS and AMS of Ukraine Ye.G. Goncharuk. Born on 29, March, 1947 in village Vybli Kulykovskyy district in Chernihiv region. In 1971 he graduated with honors and recommendation for scientific work to Kyiv medical institute (sanitary hygienic faculty). Doctor of Medicine (2003). Laureate of State Prize in the sphere of science and technology of Ukraine (1997); Laureate of Prize from AMS of Ukraine on preventive medicine (2007). Doctor of the highest category due to specialty communal hygiene. Worked as a chief state sanitary doctor in Stavyshchenskyy district in Kyiv region (1971-1972), head at department of food hygiene in Kyiv regional SES (1973). Since 1973 in Kyiv medical institute (now Bogomolets NMU): assistant (1973-1985), assistant professor (1985-2004), professor, acting head at department (2004-2006), head at department of communal hygiene and human ecology (since 2006). Author and co-author of over 200 scientific works, among them 10 textbooks, 1 study guide, 2 monographs and a book, 5 inventions, over 30 official regulatory documents and hygienic regulations. In 2008 the department was reorganized into department of communal hygiene and human ecology with children and juvenile hygiene sector. 21 employees of professors and teachers and academic auxiliary state are now working at the united department.
Assistant professor Kurinnyy Ivan Lavrentiyovych was working during a half century at department. Born on 20, September, 1928 in village Kamenovatka Shpolianskyy district in Cherkassy region. Graduated with honors from Kyiv medical institute (sanitary hygienic faculty) in 1955. He passed the way from postgraduate student at department of communal hygiene (1955-1958) to assistant (1958-1971), assistant professor (1971-2008) at this department. Since September 2008 he is not working at department due to retirement. He studied at postgraduate course under supervision of academician in AMS of USSR O.M. Marzeyev. He made the candidate’s dissertation on topic “Hygienic grounds for sanitary protection zones for mercury plants and ways for improvement of ambient air in the districts of their location”, which defended in 1964 under supervision of head at department corresponding member in AMS of USSR D.M. Kaliuzhnyy, appointed to this post after death of O.M. Marzeyev. For 50 years of creative activity Ivan Lavrentiyoyvych published more than 60 scientific works, which were devoted to sanitary protection of ambient air and living premises against their contamination with mercury, ozonization of town water, improvement of higher medical education and academic educational work of students.
During its existence the department achieved the significant successes in training doctors-hygienists, epidemiologists, scientists on problems of preventive medicine, made the significant contribution into development of hygienic science in Ukraine and abroad. The collective of department aims further to carry out an active scientific pedagogical work, which would correspond to the needs in protection and promotion of public health as soon as possible, development of medical science and training of medical staff in Ukraine.
The section of children and juvenile hygiene was included into department since 2008.
Department of communal hygiene and human ecology with section of children and juvenile hygiene (2010)
Meeting of department in cabinet-museum of academician Ye.G. Goncharuk
Head at department professor Garkavyy S.I. at lecture for students of medical university